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Kemal Atatürk [1] (or additionally written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] up until 1934, typically described as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the creator of the Republic of Turkey, acting as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship carried out sweeping progressive reforms, which improved Turkey into a nonreligious, industrial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories ended up being known as Kemalism. Due to his military and political accomplishments, Atatürk is regarded according to studies as one of the best leaders of the 20th century.

Atatürk concerned prominence for his function in protecting the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) during World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Movement, which withstood mainland Turkey's partition amongst the victorious Allied powers. Developing a provisional federal government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, therefore emerging victorious from what was later on described as the Turkish War of Self-reliance. He subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire and announced the structure of the Turkish Republic in its place.

As the president of the recently formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated a rigorous program of political, financial, and cultural reforms with the supreme objective of building a modern, progressive and nonreligious nation-state. He made main education free and compulsory, opening countless brand-new schools all over the country. He likewise presented the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish females got equal civil and political rights throughout Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western countries. [8] In particular, females were provided voting rights in regional elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a few years later on, in 1934, full universal suffrage, earlier than most other democracies worldwide.

His government brought out a policy of Turkicisation, attempting to create an uniform and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and surnames of minorities had to be altered to Turkish renditions. The Turkish Parliament approved him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which implies "Daddy of the Turks", in recognition of the function he played in developing the modern-day Turkish Republic. [16] He died on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was prospered as President by his long-time Prime Minister İsmet İnönü [18] and was bestowed a state funeral service. His renowned mausoleum in Ankara, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor Check out here of his well-known expression "Peace in the house, Peace on the planet".

In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year in the World and embraced the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, explaining him as "the leader of the first struggle offered against colonialism and imperialism" and a "impressive promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and resilient peace in between the countries of the world which he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation between individuals without difference". [19] [20] Atatürk is commemorated by numerous memorials and locations called in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.

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